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  1. The entries on this reading list often give several sources for background on a particular topic - this is to give you choice, and not a suggestion that you need to read all of them.

  2. Principles and philosophy of science 10 items
    The big questions of what science and research are, and how they relate to wider society.
    1. What is research? (Practical research: planning and design: Ch 1)

      Chapter  Includes a valuable section on what research is not, as well as the characteristics of genuine, formal research.

    2. The performance of science (Why we disagree about climate change: understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity: Ch 3) - M. Hulme

      Chapter  Do we disagree about climate change because "science is not doing the job we want or expect it to"? This chapter goes back to the basics of what scientific knowledge is, how we acquire it and how we use it. The observations and conclusions are applicable much more widely than just climate change.

    3. Difficult and important questions: science, values and ethics (What science is and how it works: Ch 11)

      Chapter Further Reading A short, accessible introduction to the underlying values of science, and how societal values and scientific research influence each other. This chapter covers the ethics of science in a philosophical sense. It complements, but does not replace, the later material on research ethics in individual situations.

    4. Nature's Jigsaw (What science is and how it works: Ch 2)

      Chapter  Two short examples of how observing, and being curious about, patterns in nature led to significant scientific discoveries.

    5. How Science Changes - The Atlantic

      Webpage  How scientific knowledge and discovery evolves over time.

    6. Science for the post-normal age - Silvio O. Funtowicz, Jerome R. Ravetz 1993-9

      Article  Referenced in Lecture, Week 2

  3. Environmental chemistry 1 item
    Book and eBook supporting the water analysis work within the module.
  4. Scientific methods 7 items
    Material on the practicalities of designing good scientific research.
    1. The problem: the heart of the research process (Practical research: planning and design: Ch 3)

      Chapter Further Reading Defining the problem your research addresses is a cornerstone of a good project. This chapter looks analytically at how to identify and describe a problem, and essential elements such as setting limits, defining terms and stating assumptions.

    2. Planning a research programme (Ecological census techniques: Ch. 1)

      Chapter Further Reading Although this chapter is in an ecology-focused book, the clear advice is useful for planning a wide range of investigations.

    3. Overview of experimental analysis and design (Research methods for science: Ch 2)

      Chapter  Hypothesis-driven experiments, precision and accuracy, error, replication, and safety.

    4. The Good Scientist (Essential environmental science: methods & techniques: Ch. 1)

      Chapter Further Reading This covers basic concepts and good practice for any scientific investigation, particularly relating to making and recording your observations.

    5. Bad science - Ben Goldacre c2009

      Book  You can learn a lot about how to do good science by reading Ben Goldacre's razor-sharp, entertaining and accessible takedown of Bad Science. It might also help you not to waste money and time on fads and pseudo-scientific products!

    6. Constructing an argument (Study skills for geography, earth and environmental science students: Ch. 11) - P. Kneale

      Chapter Further Reading Notes on establishing an argument with facts, connections and examples to support your reasoning and conclusions.

    7. Planning your research project (Practical research: planning and design: Ch 5)

      Chapter Further Reading The overall principles of a research project, as well as considerations of feasibility, data types and sources, validity, and ethics.

  5. Sampling and Data Interpretation 4 items
    1. Sampling (Essential environmental science: methods & techniques: Ch. 2)

      Chapter Further Reading Sampling strategies appropriate to different branches of environmental sciences and geography

    2. Ecological fieldwork methods (Essential environmental science: methods & techniques: Ch 8)

      Chapter Further Reading Sampling methods and other framework skills for ecological work.

    3. Sampling in Geography (Key methods in geography: Ch 17) - Stephen Rice

      Chapter  Sampling strategies and statistical considerations.

    4. Visionlearning | Process of Science | Data Analysis and Interpretation

      Webpage  Very good introductory read. Source of global temperature example in W5 lecture.

  6. Data Presentation 6 items
    1. Visionlearning | Process of Science | Using Graphs and Visual Data in Science

      Webpage  Interpretation relies on visual presentation - this is a good primer.

    2. Good charts: the HBR guide to making smarter, more persuasive data visualizations - Scott Berinato 2016

      Book  A highly accessible book on making useful charts of data, with lots of good examples.

    3. Show me the numbers: designing tables and graphs to enlighten - Stephen Few c2012


    4. The visual display of quantitative information - Edward R. Tufte 2013


    5. Improving your graph: a case study

      Webpage  Fascinating and highly readable step by step overview of improving an example graph.

  7. Social Surveys 3 items
    Specific considerations for carrying out questionnaire and interview based research
    1. Social surveys (Essential environmental science: methods & techniques: Ch 9)

      Chapter  A good overview of the strengths and weaknesses of various social survey techniques

    2. Questionnaire design & sampling (Methods in Human Geography: Ch 6) - Julian Parfitt

      Chapter Further Reading Data types, error sources, survey design, sampling, good fieldwork practice.

  8. Research ethics and risk assessment 7 items
    Ethics in research involves the principle of causing no harm to the people, organisms or places you are studying, or to others who might be affected by your research, whether deliberately or by accident.
    1. Visionlearning | Process of Science | Scientific Ethics

      Webpage  Very readable introduction to research ethics in science.

    2. What is Ethics in Research and Why is it Important? - David B Resnik

      Webpage  The bodies mentioned relate to the USA, but the definitions and principles are universal. A very accessible summary.

    3. The student's guide to research ethics - Paul Oliver 2010 (electronic resource)

      Book  Focuses on human participants, but a very comprehensive overview.

    4. Planning your research project (Practical research: planning and design: Ch 5)

      Chapter  Includes a section on research ethics, focused on human and animal subjects.

    5. Risk Assessment | STEM

      Webpage  **re-check, site down 22/8/16**

  9. Maps and mapping 10 items
    Background information on scale, projection and other foundation concepts
    1. Georeferencing (Introductory geographic information systems: Ch 2)

      Chapter  Good overview of projections and coordinate systems.

    2. Cartographic Theory and Principles - Catherine (Kate) Emma Jones

      Chapter Further Reading Basic cartographic principles including visual variables, visual hierarchy. **Note that the figures in the chapter are in black and white - there is a separate ebook entry for the colour plates. The book is also available as a paper copy in the library at G70.212 HAK **

    3. Colour figures for Cartographic Theory and Principles (Interacting with Geospatial Technologies: Ch 3)

      Chapter Further Reading See separate link for the chapter - this is the colour figures for the whole book, which are (unfortunately) published separately in the e-book.

    4. The natures of maps: cartographic constructions of the natural world - Denis Wood, John Fels 2008

      Book Further Reading Maps have power - they are not so much pictures as arguments. This book examines why that is the case.

    5. A history of the world in twelve maps - Jerry Brotton 2012


  10. Foundations of Geographic Information Systems 4 items
    Basic GIS concepts over and beyond those of mapping in general. It is recommended that you read at least one of the introductory chapters below.
    1. Geographic information: science, systems and society (Geographic information science & systems: Ch 1)

      Chapter Further Reading 4th edition (2015) available as printed book. Currently the 2nd edition (2011) is the only available eBook. Feel free to access the eBook by the link given, but be aware there are differences in this chapter and others.

    2. Spatial data models and databases (Introductory geographic information systems: Ch 5)

      Chapter  Principles of raster and vector data.

    3. Representing geography (Geographic information science & systems: Ch 3)

      Chapter  Representing various types of real world features with appropriate data models (raster, vector).

  11. GIS application case studies 7 items
    From GIS intro lecture - optional reading if you want to understand more about how GIS is used to answer questions.
    1. Using GIS in Risk Analysis: A Case Study of Hazardous Waste Transport - Andrew A. Lovett, Julian P. Parfitt, Julii S. Brainard 10/1997


  12. Writing Research Reports 13 items
    This section includes material on essay writing as it is relevant to the overall tone and writing style of a report, and especially to the more discursive sections - the literature review and the discussion of the results.
    1. The most commonly misused words and phrases in scientific writing | Adams Kaul

      Webpage  Examples of being clear and concise while retaining a scientific writing style.

    2. Top Ten style checks for PhDs or creative non-fiction writers

      Webpage  Do not be put off by the mention of PhDs! This advice is easy to understand and apply.

    3. Effective Writing | Learn Science at Scitable

      Webpage  Good notes on when to use present and past tenses in scientific writing.

    4. Active vs. Passive Voice in Scientific Writing

      Document  American Chemical Society webinar (PDF of slides). Start from page 6 to avoid the preamble. Good clear advice and exploration of the pros and cons of both active and passive voice.