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  1. Week 1: Introduction to the Module and Key Concepts for the Coming Weeks 13 items
    1.  This first lecture and seminar will introduce students to the module by a) providing an overview of the module structure, assessment types and key topics to be covered over the next ten weeks, and b) defining several key concepts for the coming weeks, such as e.g. "civil war" and "ethnic conflict".

       

      When preparing for this session, students should use the following questions to guide their readings: What is "civil war", and what are some of the key challenges in trying to define and measure civil war occurrence? How have patterns of warfare (arguably) changed since the end of the Second World War? Why do civil wars pose problems to a country's development prospects?

       

    2. Essential Readings 3 items
      1. Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. - The World Bank 2003

        Webpage Core Reading Please read chapter 1 “Civil War as Development in Reverse”

      2. Chapter 1 : Introduction of 'An Introduction to Civil Wars'

        Chapter Core Reading Please read chapter 1 "Introduction". This reading is also available as a sample chapter via the following link http://www.cqpress.com/docs/college/Derouen.pdf .

      3. Global Report 2017: Conflict, Governance, and State Fragility - Monty G. Marshall, Gabrielle Elzinga-Marshall 2017

        Document Core Reading --- Please read pp. 25-29, “Conflict Dimension: Global Trends in Armed Conflict”.

    3. Further Readings 9 items
      1. The Unequal Burden of War: The Effect of Armed Conflict on the Gender Gap in Life Expectancy - Thomas Plümper and Eric Neumayer 2006

        Journal Further Reading --- Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

      2. Peoples versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century - Ted Robert Gurr 2000

        Book Further Reading --- Please read chapter 1 “The Ethnic Basis of Political Action in the 1980s and 1990s.”

      3. The New New Civil Wars - Barbara F. Walter 2017

        Article Further Reading

      4. Chapter 1: "The Human Dimension: Facts, Figures, and Stories of Ethnic Conflict" of Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective - Stefan Wolff 2006

        Chapter Further Reading Please read chapter 1 "The Human Dimension: Facts, Figures, and Stories of Ethnic Conflict".

      5. The Legacy of Political Violence across Generations - Noam Lupu, Leonid Peisakhin 2017

        Article Further Reading

  2. Week 2: Why Do People Fight?: Central Theories in the Civil Wars Literature 22 items
    1. This week's lecture and seminar will introduce students to central theories in the civil wars literature that will feature prominently in several of the subsequent module topics. First, we will look at the claims, strengths and weaknesses of three schools of thought that seek to explain the causes of violent ethnic conflicts: primordialism, instrumentalism and constructivism. Second, we will discuss the claims, strengths and weaknesses of greed- versus grievance-based arguments which have dominated the civil wars literature since the late 1990s. Part of these discussions will be a clear distinction of ethnic as opposed to non-ethnic civil wars, building on key concepts covered in week 1 of the module.

       

      When preparing for this session, students should use the following questions to guide their readings: How do primordialism, instrumentalism and constructivism explain the causes of violent ethnic conflict, and which of these explanations do you find particularly convincing and why? What are the causes of civil war according to a) greed- and b) grievance-based arguments, and which of these explanations do you find particularly convincing and why? Under which circumstances are countries particularly likely to experience either ethnic or non-ethnic civil wars?

    2. Essential Readings 4 items
      1. Chapter 1 "Identity, Boundaries and Violence" of Theories of violent conflict: an introduction - Jolle Demmers 2012

        Chapter Core Reading Please read chapter 1 "Identity, Boundaries and Violence".

      2. Chapter 5: 5 "A Framework for Analysis of Ethnopolitical Mobilization and Conflict” of Ethnic conflict in world politics - Barbara Harff, Ted Robert Gurr 2004

        Chapter Further Reading Please read chapter 5 "A Framework for Analysis of Ethnopolitical Mobilization and Conflict”.

      3. Greed and Grievance in Civil War - Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler 2004

        Article Core Reading --- Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

    3. Further Readings 17 items
      1. Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identity - Review by: James D. Fearon , David D. Laitin 2000

        Article Further Reading Please focus in particular on pp. 857-874

      2. Chapter 3: "The Etiology of Ethnopolitical Conflict" of Peoples versus States: Minorities at Risk in the New Century - T. R Gurr 2000

        Chapter Further Reading Please read chapter 3: "The Etiology of Ethnopolitical Conflict".

      3. Beyond Greed and Grievance: Feasibility and Civil War - Paul Collier, Anke Hoeffler and Dominic Rohner 2009

        Journal Further Reading Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

      4. Square Pegs in Round Holes: Inequalities, Grievances, and Civil War - Buhaug et al. 2014

        Article  Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

      5. Ethnicity and Civil War - Elaine K Denny, Barbara F Walter 2014

        Article Further Reading

      6. Serbia's Road to War - V. P. Gagnon 1994

        Article Further Reading

      7. Beyond Greed and Grievance: Policy Lessons from Studies in the Political Economy of Armed Conflict - Karen Ballentine, Heiko Nitzschke 2003

        Document Further Reading ---- Please read pp. 5-12.

      8. Who Fights? The Determinants of Participation in Civil War - Macartan Humphreys, Jeremy M. Weinstein 2008

        Article Further Reading Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training

  3. Week 3: Causes and Consequences of Terrorism 17 items
    1. Terrorism is a form of political violence that is distinct from but in many cases related to violent intrastate conflicts. This week's lecture and seminar will focus on three key issues in the academic debate on terrorism: how to define terrorism and distinguish different types of terrorist action; the (contested) causes of terrorism; and the likely consequences of terrorism, i.e. how successful are terrorists in achieving their goals.

       

      When preparing for this session, students should use the following questions to guide their readings: What is terrorism, what types of terrorism do different authors distinguish, and which of these typologies of terrorism do you find particularly useful and why? Is terrorism a "rational political strategy", and what does this mean exactly? How successful are terrorists in achieving their goals?

       

    2. Essential Readings 3 items
      1. The Causes of Terrorism - Martha Crenshaw 1981

        Article Core Reading A fairly old but very widely cited article on terrorism. When reading it, you may want to consider critically whether Crenshaw’s key claims are likely to still hold today

      2. The Strategies of Terrorism - Andrew H. Kydd and Barbara F. Walter 2006

        Article Core Reading

      3. Why Terrorism Does Not Work - Max Abrahms 2006

        Article Core Reading

    3. Further Readings 13 items
      1. Chapter "Terrorism and Civil War" of Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness - Nicholas Sambanis 2008

        Chapter Further Reading Please read chapter "Terrorism and Civil War" by Nicholas Sambanis.

      2. Twisting Arms and Sending Messages - Sara MT Polo, Kristian Skrede Gleditsch 2016

        Article Further Reading Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

      3. The Political Effectiveness of Terrorism Revisited - Max Abrahms 2012

        Article Further Reading Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

      4. Terrorism and Democracy - Erica Chenoweth 2013

        Article Further Reading

      5. Rewarding Bad Behavior: How Governments Respond to Terrorism in Civil War - Jakana Thomas 2014

        Article Further Reading Please skip over the more technical parts of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

      6. ISIS Is Not a Terrorist Group - Audrey Kurth Cronin 2015

        Article Further Reading

      7. Chapter Economic Consequences of Terrorism in Developed and Developing Countries: An Overview" of Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness - Todd Sandler, Walter Enders

        Chapter Further Reading Please read chapter "Economic Consequences of Terrorism in Developed and Developing Countries: An Overview" by Todd Sandler and Walter Enders.

  4. Week 4: State Terrorism and Political Violence 18 items
    1. Contrary to conventional uses of the term today, "terrorism" first entered the political lexicon in reference to the actions of states ­­– from The Reign of Terror in revolutionary France to the widespread use of "terror" by totalitarian regimes in the 20th century. Yet, the study of "state terrorism" constitutes a "subjugated knowledge" in the field of terrorism studies, according to Jackson (2008). How do we explain this reluctance within the scholarly community to recognize and study state terrorism? What happens to our conventional understanding of terrorist violence in the world when we expand it to include the actions of states? What can the study of "state terrorism" tell us about the use of political violence by non-state actors? And what is to be gained (and lost) – analytically and politically – by employing the term?

       

      These are just some of the contentious issues and questions that we will address this week, which you also should use to guide your readings.

    2. Essential Readings 3 items
      1. Contemporary state terrorism: theory and practice - Richard Jackson, Eamonn Murphy, Scott Poynting 2010

        Book Core Reading Please read the chapter "State Terrorism in the Social Sciences: Theories, Methods and Concepts" by Ruth Blakeley.

      2. Contemporary debates on terrorism 2018

        Book  Please read Chapter 3 - "Can states be terrorist?"

    3. Further Readings 14 items
      1. How (not) to study terrorism - Verena Erlenbusch 04/07/2014

        Article 

      2. Western state terrorism - Alexander George 1991

        Book 

  5. Week 5: Language, Politics and Power in the “War on Terror” 28 items
    1. From Afghanistan and Syria to the streets of London and Paris, the threat of "terrorism" – both real and imagined – looms large over public and scholarly debates about conflicts, wars and humanitarian crises. 9/11 and the subsequent "war on terror" have fundamentally re-shaped the way we think about political violence. What is more, "terrorism" is regularly invoked by political elites, journalists and international relations experts to justify military interventions and re-writing the international rules and norms governing armed conflict. In this week's lecture and seminar we will attempt to deconstruct the "war on terror" – as both a set of material practices and a discursive regime – and examine the way dominant ideas about "terrorism" have been constructed, mediated and distorted in recent years, and to what effect.

       

      In preparation for this week, please consider the following questions: How do different political and social actors – be they governments, news organisations, activists or "terrorists" themselves – attempt to shape public debate about terrorism? What is the "new terrorism" thesis and how has it informed counter-terrorism policy since 9/11? Why is it important to take language seriously when discussing terrorism? And, in more theoretical terms, how should we understand the relationship between discourse and power in relation to terrorism?           

       

    2. Essential Readings 2 items
      1. Embedded Expertise and the New Terrorism - Jonny Burnett, Dave Whyte 2005

        Article Core Reading

    3. Further Readings 25 items
      1. Al-Qaeda: the true story of radical Islam - Jason Burke 2007

        Book 

      2. Media and terrorism: global perspectives - Des Freedman, Daya Kishan Thussu 2012

        Book Further Reading

      3. The Rise and Fall of Al-Qaeda - Fawaz A. Gerges 2014

        Book Further Reading

      4. ISIS and the Third Wave of Jihadism - Fawaz A. Gerges 2014

        Article Further Reading

      5. ISIS: a history - Fawaz A. Gerges 2016 (electronic resource)

        Book Further Reading

      6. The Colonial Present: Afghanistan, Palestine, Iraq - Derek Gregory 2004

        Book Further Reading

      7. Writing the War on Terrorism: Language, Politics, and Counter-Terrorism - Richard Jackson 2005

        Book Further Reading

      8. Framing Terrorism: The News Media, the Government, and the Public - Pippa Norris, Montague Kern, Marion R. Just 2003

        Book Further Reading

      9. The Essential Terrorist | The Nation - Edward W. Said 1986

        Webpage Further Reading

      10. Burning country: Syrians in revolution and war - Robin Yassin-Kassab, Leila Al-Shami 2016 (electronic resource)

        Book Further Reading

  6. Week 8: Media, Propaganda and War 26 items
    1. In this week's lecture and seminar we will critically examine the complex relationship between the mass media and armed conflict since the end of the Cold War. In an age of 24/7 global news reporting, major conflicts around the world have become thoroughly mediatized. Some scholars emphasise how strategies of information and news management have become integral components of contemporary wars, as governments, militaries and non-state actors seek to mobilise public opinion and legitimise their use of force. The 2003 Iraq war is one major case that we will explore in more detail. Others argue that the news media may themselves compel 'western' governments to engage in military interventions abroad – the so-called 'CNN effect' – raising important questions about the role of the media in shaping foreign policy.

       

      In preparation for this week, please consider the following questions: What is the nature of the relationship between the news media and governments in times of war? Do the media mainly serve as propaganda platforms for governments and the military? Or do the media actively shape (or challenge) foreign policies and military interventions of 'western' states? And how does war reporting influence public understanding of and opinion about armed conflicts?

       

    2. Essential Readings 2 items
    3. Further Readings 23 items
      1. The Media at War - Susan L. Carruthers 2011

        Book Further Reading

      2. The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East - Robert Fisk 2007

        Book Further Reading

      3. Moving Media and Conflict Studies beyond the CNN Effect - Eytan Gilboa, Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert, Jason Miklian, Piers Robinson 2016

        Article Further Reading

      4. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media - Edward S. Herman, Noam Chomsky 2002

        Book Further Reading

      5. War and Media: The Emergence of Diffused War - Andrew Hoskins, Ben O'Loughlin 2010 (electronic resource)

        Book Further Reading

      6. Reporting Dissent in Wartime: British Press, the Anti-War Movement and the 2003 Iraq War - Craig Murray, Katy Parry, Piers Robinson, Peter Goddard 2008

        Article Further Reading

      7. War and the Media: Reporting Conflict 24/7 - Daya Kishan Thussu, Des Freedman 2003

        Book Further Reading

  7. Week 9: Civil Wars and Humanitarian Action 17 items
    1. This week's lecture and seminar will deal with the increasingly controversial relationship between civil wars and humanitarian action. Specifically, we will focus on concerns by practitioners and academics about the apparent politicization of humanitarian action during and after civil war, and the likely effects of humanitarian action on the duration of intrastate violence.    

       

      When preparing for this session, students should use the following questions to guide their readings: What are some of the key challenges in delivering humanitarian assistance during or immediately after episodes of violent conflict? Can humanitarian action be non-political, and why might the politicization of humanitarian action be a problem? What is the "paradox of humanitarian action", why does it occur and how (if at all) can it be overcome?

    2. Essential Readings 3 items
      1. Assisting Uncertainty: How Humanitarian Aid Can Inadvertently Prolong Civil War - Neil Narang 2015

        Article Core Reading Please skip over the more technical bits of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training

    3. Further Readings 13 items
      1. International Development and Assistance: Where Politics Meets Economy - Andrzej Bolesta 2004

        Article Further Reading Please read chapter "Humanitarian Assistance: Good Will, Politics and Dilemmas" by Karimah Hudda.

      2. 'Introduction' and 'Chapter 1: Humanitarian Action and Responsibility' of Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action

        Chapter Further Reading Please read the introduction and chapter 1 "Humanitarian Action and Responsibility".

      3. Chapter ‘Instrumentalisation of Aid in Humanitarian Crises: Obstacle or Precondition for Cooperation?’ of Humanitarianism and Challenges of Cooperation - Dennis Dijkzeul, Dorothea Hilhorsof

        Chapter Further Reading Please read the chapter ‘Instrumentalisation of Aid in Humanitarian Crises: Obstacle or Precondition for Cooperation?’ by Dennis Dijkzeul and Dorothea Hilhors

      4. No Good Deed Goes Unpunished: Refugees, Humanitarian Aid, and Terrorism - Seung-Whan Choi, Idean Salehyan 2013

        Article Further Reading Please skip over the more technical bits of this article if you haven’t had any previous statistics training.

  8. Week 10: Displacement, the Refugee System and the Idea of ‘Return’ 22 items
    1.  

      Every year, millions of people are forcibly displaced from their homes as a result of war and violence and a significant proportion remain displaced for years on end as a result of the 'protracted' nature of so many post-Cold War conflicts. This week's lecture and seminar will focus on three key issues in the academic debate on displacement, refugees and cycles of violence: whether the global refugee regime is fit for purpose; the way in which refugee and IDP camps function and how power and social control is meditated in these 'humanitarian spaces'; and the complex relationship between dynamics of refugee and IDP 'return' and on-going cycles of violence and displacement.

       

      When preparing for the session, students should use the following questions to guide their readings: What are the major challenges to, and limitations of, the existing global refugee regime? Do 'camps' pose a moral, social and political threat to the lives they are supposed to protect? How do displaced people exercise agency in the context of their everyday lives? In circumstances of 'return' after displacement, how does social repair become possible and how and why might cycles of violence and displacement persist?

       

       

       

    2. Essential Readings 5 items
      1. Justice in Transition - Kimberly Theidon 2006

        Article Core Reading

    3. Further Readings 16 items
      1. Condemned to Repeat?: The Paradox of Humanitarian Action - Fiona Terry c2002 (electronic resource)

        Book Further Reading

      2. Violent Inaction: The Necropolitical Experience of Refugees in Europe - Thom Davies, Arshad Isakjee, Surindar Dhesi 2017

        Article Further Reading

      3. Managing the Undesirables: Refugee Camps and Humanitarian Government - Michel Agier 2011

        Book Further Reading

      4. Refugee Camp Economies - Eric Werker 2007

        Article Further Reading

      5. Policy on Alternatives to Camps - UN High Commissioner for Refugees 2014

        Webpage Further Reading

  9. Week 11: Intrastate Violence and Gender 20 items
    1. This week's lecture and seminar will focus on three key issues in the academic debate on the relevance of gender during and after episodes of violent intrastate conflict: the use of sexual violence against women and men as a weapon of war; the role(s) of women as victims and/or agents of intrastate violence; and the need for gender sensitivity in peacebuilding processes. While discussing these issues, students should pay particular attention to  the theoretical and methodological challenges that researchers and policy-makers have to face when considering the relevance of gender during and after episodes of violent intrastate conflict.   

       

      When preparing for this session, students should use the following questions to guide their readings: What are the aims of sexual violence against women and men during episodes of intrastate violence, and why do the forms and extent of sexual violence vary across conflicts? Under which conditions are women particularly likely to become agents of political violence, and what (if anything) does this imply for the explanations of intrastate violence discussed in week 2? What are some of the key challenges in analysing the relevance of gender during and after episodes of violent intrastate conflict?

    2. Essential Readings 4 items
    3. Further Readings 15 items
      1. Rape as a Weapon of War - Claudia Card 1996

        Article Further Reading

      2. Becoming Abject: Rape as a Weapon of War - Bülent Diken, Carsten Bagge Laustsen 2005

        Article Further Reading

      3. Sexual Violence and War: - Inger Skjelsbaek 2001

        Article Further Reading

      4. Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict - Dara Kay Cohen, Ragnhild Nordås 2014

        Article Further Reading

      5. Ordered Rape: A Principal-Agent Analysis of Wartime Sexual Violence in the DR Congo - Gerald Schneider, Lilli Banholzer, Laura Albarracin 2015

        Article Further Reading

      6. Where Women Rebel - Alexis Leanna Henshaw 2016

        Article Further Reading

      7. Women's Participation in Violent Political Organizations - Jakana L. Thomas, Kanisha D. Bond 2015

        Article Further Reading

  10. Week 12: Strategies and Challenges of Peace-Building 17 items
    1. This week's lecture and seminar will discuss three key issues in the academic debate on peacebuilding: the central claims, strengths and weaknesses of the liberal peacebuilding paradigm; the benefits and pitfalls of emphasising "the local" in hybrid peacebuilding arguments; and the role of statebuilding in peacebuilding operations.

       

      When preparing for this session, students should use the following questions to guide their readings: What are the central claims of the liberal peacebuilding argument, and do you think they make sense when trying to achieve direct, structural and/or cultural negative and positive peace? Are there any viable alternatives to the liberal peacebuilding paradigm? How important is statebuilding for peacebuilding, and what are some of the key challenges for statebuilders in war-torn societies?

       

    2. Essential Readings 3 items
      1. Saving Liberal Peacebuilding - Roland Paris 2010

        Article Core Reading

    3. Further Readings 13 items
      1. The Local Turn in Peace Building: A Critical Agenda for Peace. - Roger Mac Ginty, Oliver P. Richmond 2013

        Article Further Reading

      2. The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations - Roland Paris, Timothy D. Sisk 2009

        Book Further Reading Please read in particular "Introduction: Understanding the Contradictions of Postwar Peacebuilding" by Roland Paris and Timothy D. Sisk.

      3. The Art of the Possible: Power Sharing and Post—Civil War Democracy - Caroline A. Hartzell, Matthew Hoddie 2015

        Article Further Reading